The aim of the study was to measure the effect of prolonged Analemma water consumption on blood ATP levels of human participants.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is commonly referred to as the "energy currency" of the cell. Its structure is simple - it consists of a base, a sugar and three serially linked phosphate groups. The energy of ATP is stored in the bond between its second and third phosphate group. Whenever this bond is broken (hydrolysed), energy is released.
The majority of cellular ATP is synthesised in the mitochondria and then exchanged as fuel for other biochemical reactions. ATP synthesis and hydrolysis are in a constant cycle and both need to be maintained for proper cellular functioning. Inadequate production of ATP adversely affects numerous cellular processes and can have deleterious effects on human health.
What is ATP used for?
ATP is utilised in a number of biological processes, such as DNA and RNA synthesis, muscle contraction, neuronal impulse propagation and many others. The role of ATP in muscle contraction is multifold - ATP is necessary for generating force and maintaining ion transport across membranes, making it essential for everyday muscle functioning.
Even more demanding is the utilisation of ATP in the brain. A single neuron hydrolyses nearly one billion ATP molecules for a single repolarisation event, which happens every time it needs to send an impulse to a neighbouring cell. Not surprisingly, the brain is the highest consumer of ATP, spending around 25% of total available energy in the body.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of prolonged Analemma water consumption on ATP levels in the blood of healthy adult humans.
PARTICIPANTS: 50 healthy adult human subjects, aged 18-60, BMI 18.50-29.99 kg/m2.
STUDY DESIGN: The study was designed as a double blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, parallel group clinical study. Participants were randomly divided into three groups and given adequate amounts of Analemma Water (n=13), Test Water 2 (n=12) or non-treated water (Placebo Control, n=25). The setup was double blind, with neither the participants nor the clinical investigators aware of how the subjects were distributed into groups. All participants were instructed to consume at least 1.5 L of the given water for 60 days, with regular compliance assessment check-ups. ATP levels of all participants were measured in whole blood samples obtained prior to treatment (Day -1) and on the last day of treatment (Day 60). Relative ATP levels were detected using a standardised kit based on firefly luciferase bioluminescence (Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Osaka, Japan).
DATA ANALYSIS: The change in ATP levels between Day -1 and Day 60 was calculated for all groups. Statistical difference between the mean values obtained in the Analemma Water group and the Placebo Control group was analysed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).
The change in ATP levels in the Analemma group was 26.84 ± 24.90, while the change in ATP levels in the Placebo Control group was 7.32 ± 26.65. The difference between the means was significant. Therefore, this study indicates that consuming Analemma water for 60 days significantly increases blood ATP levels in humans.
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